Friday, November 5, 2010

General Awareness

1. Saccharimeter:

saccharimeter is an instrument for measuring the concentration of sugar solutions.
This is commonly achieved using a measurement of refractive index (refractometer) or the angle of rotation of polarization of optically active sugars (polarimeter).
Saccharimeters are used in food processing industries, brewing, and the distilled alcoholic drinks industry.

2, Ammeters
Zero-center ammeters are used for applications requiring current to be measured with both polarities, common in scientific and industrial equipment. Zero-center ammeters are also commonly placed in series with a battery.

3. Manometer
Static pressure is uniform in all directions, so pressure measurements are independent of direction in an immovable (static) fluid.

4. Barkometer
A barkometer is calibrated to test the strength of tanning liquors used in tanning leather.[10]

5. William Herschel

Herschel became most famous for the discovery of the planetUranus in addition to two of its major moons, Titania and Oberon. He also discovered two moons of Saturn and infrared radiation. Finally, Herschel is less known for the twenty-four symphonies that he composed.

6. Robert koch
He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his tuberculosis findings in 1905.The crater Koch on the Moon is named after him. The Robert Koch Prize and Medal were created to honour Microbiologists who make groundbreaking discoveries or who contribute to global health in a unique way. The now-defunct Robert Koch Hospital at Koch, Missouri (south of St. Louis, Missouri), was also named in his honor. 

7. Alexander Oparin
He was a Soviet biochemist notable for his contributions to the theory of the origin of life, and for his authorship of the book The Origin of Life. Oparin sometimes is called "Charles Darwin|Darwin" of the 20th century.Many of his early papers were on plant enzymes and their role inmetabolism.[3]He showed that many food-production processes are based on biocatalysis and developed the foundations for industrial biochemistry in the USSR.[2]

Rømer starts with an order of magnitude demonstration that the speed of light must be so large that it takes much less than one second to travel a distance equal to Earth's diameter. 
Rømer also invented the Meridian circle, the Altazimuth and the Passage InstrumentRømer also developed one of the first temperature scales.Fahrenheit visited him in 1708 and improved on the Rømer scale, the result being the familiar Fahrenheit temperature scale still in use today in a few countries.

9. Astrobiology
Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. Earth is the only known inhabited planet in the universe to date.Nucleic acids may not be the only biomolecules in theUniverse capable of coding for life.[1] Extremophiles (organisms able to survive in extreme environments) are a core research element for astrobiologists. The NASA Kepler mission, successfully launched in March 2009, searches for extrasolar planets.

10. Philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources, as such it is a combination ofliterary studieshistory and linguistics.[1]Another branch of philology, cognitive philology studies written and oral texts, considering them as results of human mental processes. Because of its focus on historical development (diachronic analysis), philology came to be used as a term contrasting with linguisticsLinguistics is the scientific[1][2] study of human language.

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