1. Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV):
Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk at the University of Pittsburgh and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962.
Every child during the first year of life should receive at least three routine doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OVP). Interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication.OPV drops may also be given to newborn children, even if they were born only a few hours ago. Usually, the colour of an Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is pink. However, sometimes the colour may also be yellow or white. All the vaccines are the same and this colour difference in no way affects the quality or type of vaccine.
2. Pineal Gland:
It is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.It produces a hormone that affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns and seasonal functions. It is located near the center of the brain between the two hemispheres.Chemical analysis shows that they are composed of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium phosphate, and ammonium phosphate.
The pineal gland was called the "third eye" by ancient people. It was thought to have mystical powers. René Descartes, who dedicated much time to the study of the pineal gland, called it the "seat of the soul". He believed that it was the point of connection between the intellect and the body.